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Smoke

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Intended for other uses, see Smoke (disambiguation).

Smoke from a bee person, used inbeekeeping

the smoke of burning tungsten in alightbulb

Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases[1] emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, with the quantity of surroundings that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is typically an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves,  candles,  oil lamps, and fireplaces), but could also be used for pest control (fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defensive and unpleasant capabilities in the military (smoke-screen), cooking (smoked salmon), or smoking (tobacco,  cannabis, etc . ). Smoking is used in rituals, once incense,  sage, or resin is burned up to produce a smell for religious purposes. Smoke cigarettes is sometimes applied as a flavoring agent, and preservative for various food products. Smoke is also a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust. Smoke inhalation is the main cause of death in subjects of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of heat damage,  poisoning andpulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide,  hydrogen cyanide and other combustion items. Smoke contaminants are an aerosol (or mist) of stable particles and liquid tiny droplets that are near the ideal variety of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been compared to 3d textured level of privacy glass[citation needed] — a smoke cigars cloud will not obstruct an image, but extensively scrambles that. Contents

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1 Chemical make up

1 . 1 Visible and unseen particles of combustion

2 Dangers of smoke

2 . 1 Smoke corrosion

3 Secondhand smoke breathing

4 Measurement of smoke

5 Medicinal smoke

6 See also

7 References

8 External links

Chemical formula[edit]

This section needs additional info for verification.  Please help improve this kind of article by adding details to dependable sources. Unsourced material could possibly be challenged and removed.  (April 2011) The composition of smoke depends upon what nature from the burning gas and the conditions of burning. Fires with high availability of oxygen burn up at a high temperature and with small amount of smoke produced; the particles are mostly composed of ash, or with large temperature differences, of condensed pulverizador of drinking water. High temperature also leads to creation of nitrogen oxides. Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide, or in the event of incomplete burning,  hydrogen sulfide. Carbon and hydrogen will be almost totally oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Fires burning up with insufficient oxygen create a significantly wider palette of compounds, some of them toxic.  Partial oxidation of carbon dioxide produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen-containing components can yield hydrogen cyanide,  ammonia, and nitrogen oxides.  Hydrogen gas can be developed instead of water. Content of halogens such as chlorine (e. g. in polyvinyl chloride or brominated flame retardants) may lead to creation of at the. g.  hydrogen chloride,  phosgene, dioxin, and chloromethane,  bromomethane and other halocarbons.  Hydrogen fluoride can be created from fluorocarbons, whether fluoropolymers subjected to fire or halocarbon fire reductions agents.[2] Phosphorus and antimony oxides and their reaction products can be shaped from some fire retardant additives, elevating smoke degree of toxicity and corrosivity.  Pyrolysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), e. g. from losing older transformer olive oil, and to reduce degree also of various other chlorine-containing components, can produce 2, 3, several, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, a potent carcinogen, and other polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Pyrolysis of fluoropolymers, e. g.  teflon, in presence of oxygen yields carbonyl fluoride (which hydrolyzes readily to HF and CO2); various other compounds can be formed as well, e. g.  carbon tetrafluoride,  hexafluoropropylene, and highly toxic perfluoroisobutene (PFIB).[3]

Emission of soot from a large dieseltruck,...

References: edit]

1 . Jump up^ Smoke Production and Properties - SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Architectural

2 . Leap up^ http://www.smoke.com

3. ^ Jump about: a b c National Research Council (U. S. ). Task Pressure on Flammability, Smoke, Toxicity, and Corrosive Gases of electrical Cable Components (1978).  Flammability, smoke, degree of toxicity, and rust gases of electrical cable elements: report from the Task Push on Flammability, Smoke, Toxicity, and Rust Gases of Electric Cable Components, National Supplies Advisory Table, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems, National Research Council. National Academies. pp.  107–. QUICK SLEEP: 15488. Recovered 14 06 2012.

5. Jump up^ F. Oldfield, K. Tolonen and R. Thompson (1981). " History of Particulate Atmospheric Polluting of the environment from Permanent magnet Measurements in Dated Finnish Peat Profiles".  Ambio 10 (4): 185. JSTOR 4312673.

five. Jump up^ Lanci, L.; Kent, D. Sixth is v. (2006).  " Meteoric smoke cigars fallout uncovered by superparamagnetism in Greenland ice".  Geophys. Res. Lett.  33 (13): L13308.  Bibcode: 2006GeoRL.. 3313308L. doi: 10. 1029/2006GL026480.

6. Bounce up^ Suavet, C.; Gattacceca, T.; Rochette, L.; Perchiazzi, N.; Folco, M.; Duprat, M.; Harvey, 3rd there�s r. P. (2009).  " Permanent magnetic properties of micrometeorites".  J. Geophys. Cabeza de ganado.  114: B04102. Bibcode: 2009JGRB.. 11404102S.  doi: 10. 1029/2008JB005831.

7. ^ Jump up to: a b c James E. Indicate (2006).  corrosion& f=false Physical real estate of polymers handbook. Springer.  ISBN 0-387-31235-8.

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